Stability Parameters and AMMI Analysis of Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Assiut University, Assiut 71526, Egypt

2 Ecology and Dry Land Agriculture Division, Desert Research Center, El-Matarya, Cairo 11753, Egypt


SCREENING for stable genotype entails estimating the genotype (G)×environment (E) interaction (GEI) in multi-environmental trials (MET). Quinoa is a nutritionally rich crop as a source of vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids. It has been introduced to many countries in diverse regions worldwide. We evaluated five genotypes of quinoa under ten environments including irrigated and rain-fed conditions across Egypt. We used several stability parameters as well as additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis to determine the best genotype for each environment/location across Egypt. Based on AMMI analysis of variance, the sum of squares (SS) of E, G, and GEI explained ≈ 78%, 14%, 8%, respectively, of the treatment sum of squares. The SS of interaction principal components analysis axis1 (IPCA1) and IPCA2 explained 75 and 18%, respectively. KVL-SRA3 was the most stable genotype according to ecovalence value (Wi), to deviation from regression coefficient value (S2di) of Eberhart and Russell and to IPCA1, IPCA2 and AMMI stability value (ASV). Regalona was the most unstable genotype based on the same parameters. These results were visualized using AMMI biplot analysis, which revealed that KVL-SRA3 was widely adapted to all environments unlike Regalona that was poorly adapted to most environments. The Spearman’s rank correlation among different stability parameters was significantly variable for both the five-quinoa genotypes and the ten investigated environments. Our results indicated that most stability parameters were consistent with AMMI parameters in identifying stable genotypes with some exceptions according to the concept of each of stability parameter (agronomic or biological). This study is an important step to open doors for the adoption of an extraordinary nutritional crop in Egypt.


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